ADDIE model- lack of participation

The ADDIE model consists of five phases: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation.  Here is an example, using lack of participation in the classroom as a problem:


Phase #1: Analysis- The problem is lack of participation in the English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom.  The students are in Ninth Grade and they are reluctant to participate.  Sometimes, they answer questions in Spanish, because they feel uncomfortable talking in English.  Also, the students that are more fluent are the ones that always end up volunteering for reading out-loud, answering questions and role-playing. I believe that this type of attitude, if we can call it that way, is due to fear.  Some students have the fear of being teased if they say something wrong or pronounce a word incorrectly.  Other students believe that they are not good enough and have fear of being rejected.

In this case, my goals are:

1. Make the students feel relaxed and not anxious, so they feel comfortable when facing their fears.

2. Integrate technology, so they have something familiar to them, and they don’t feel left out.

3. Use peer students as helpers for the other students that have fears, so they feel confident and comfortable to share and participate.

I would use these tasks:

1. The use of songs, music, and games create a relaxed environment.

2. The use of adequate illumination, to help them concentrate.

3. The one-minute paper task, so they can express themselves, without being judged.

4. A system of rewards for every time they improve on something.  Every time they do something incorrectly, they will receive appropriate correction that doesn’t make them feel awkward or out of place.


Phase #2: Design- The students are to feel more relaxed and comfortable to be able to participate orally in class.  The strategy is to integrate technology, arts, and peer learning in all, or most, of the classes, to create a healthy environment and avoid stress and anxiety, which leads todifficulties when participating. I would begin with them listening first and giving then enough time for that.  When they feel ready, they can start singing along some songs, sharing short sentences, phrases, and words.  Then, they will share, but using games and written questions as guidelines.  After that, the students should feel better when sharing.


Phase #3: Development- In order to achieve the objectives, the following materials are to be created: 1. Webquests that integrate music and videos to make them feel at ease with the language.  This will also help them lose their fear of English and of participating. 2. Games projected on a screen to motivate them to participate.  This a fun and different way to teach.  Games are very effective.  In this case, games would be projected and the students, one by one, will get up, answer, and read out loud. 3. Audio recordings and/or movies with closed captions that help them visualize in written form what they are listening to at the same time.


Phase #4: Implementation- The students will take class in the classroom, computer laboratory, or basketball court, depending on the activity they are performing.  The teacher will be constantly assessing the learning process to make sure that the lessons are being effective.  The students will give their opinions to the teacher, either orally or in written form.



Phase #5: Evaluation- Formative Evaluation will take place during the process and it will be based on the teacher’s observation, oral performance, and written form.  The Sumative Evaluation will be an oral report in front of class.  It can be descriptive, show-and-tell styled, persuasive, step-by-step process, cause and effect or comparison and contrast.  This way, the teacher can know how effective the teaching process was and the things that need to be changed when used in the future. Here is another example.


Standing Strong

Think about your childhood for a moment.  Did you ever feel uncomfortable in school?  Did your parents have to force you because you didn’t want to go?  What were the reasons for this?

You have probably been called names, pushed, hit, intimidated, etc.  If not, you probably remember that kid that was bothered in school, just because he wore glasses, always had A’s, or because of his way of speaking.

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